Subsystem: Programmed frameshift

This subsystem's description is:

Peptide chain release factor 2 --
Peptide chain release factor 2 is resposible for terminating translation at UGA codons. When a UGA is encountered, the ribosome stalls, because there is no appropriate tRNA. Release factor 2 can mimic the tRNA, leading to the release of the peptide from the tRNA.

Peptide chain release factor 2 unshifted fragment --
In most organisms, the release factor 2 gene has in inframe UGA stop codon about 25 codons from the start of translation. If there is sufficent release factor 2, translation stops at this point, releasing a short peptide: "Peptide chain release factor 2 unshifted fragment". Not all of these are currently annotated.

If there is not sufficient release factor 2, the ribosome can slip forward one nucleotide, sliding from the UGA to a GAN (usually GAC, encoding Asp) codon and then continuing to produce the full protein. The amino acid before the stop is most often a CUU Leu codon. One other common (but not universal) feature of the frame shifting site is a strong ribosome binding site (but no corresponding start codon).

programmed frameshift-containing --
The release factor 2 genes that include an inframe stop codon are indicated by the additional role "programmed frameshift-containing". This annotation is very nearly comprehensive.

Mycoplasmas use UGA as a second codon for tryptophan. Almost as if planned, they do not have release factor 2.

For more information, please check out the description and the additional notes tabs, below

DiagramFunctional RolesSubsystem SpreadsheetDescriptionAdditional Notes 

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