Subsystem: Siderophore Staphylobactin

This subsystem's description is:

This SS encodes a genetic locus (sbn) involved in biosynthesis of the siderophore staphylobactin in S. aureus. Although this compound has not been structurally characterized yet, it’s involvement in virulence of S. aureus in a murine kidney abscess model has been clearly demonstrated (Dale et al., 2004). It was also shown, that the sbnABCDEFGHI genes comprise an operon, and that iron (via Fur) regulates its transcription (Dale et al., 2004). The functions of each gene product have not been determined yet. The involvement of the SirABC proteins in the staphylobactin import in S. aureus was shown experimentally (Dale, Sebulsky, and Heinrichs, 2004)

It was later suggested by (Challis GL. 2005), based on sequence similarity of the SbnE, SbnC, and SbnF genes with iucA, iucB, iucC respectively (controlling aerobactin biosynthesis in some virulent E. coli strain), that staphylobactin is related to a group of non-peptide siderophores, produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS)-independent mechanism. Siderophores in this group include aerobactin, rhizobactin 1021, achromobactin, vibrioferrin, alcaligin, and desferrioxamine E (reviewed by Challis, 2005). Such siderophores are assembled from alternating dicarboxylic acid and diamine or amino alcohol building blocks (which are nevertheless derived from amino acids) linked by amide or ester bonds (Challis GL. 2005)

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DiagramFunctional RolesSubsystem SpreadsheetDescriptionAdditional Notes 

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Group Alias
Abbrev.Functional RoleReactionsScenario ReactionsGOLiterature
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Taxonomy Pattern 
Organism 
Domain
Variant [?] 
active
SirA?SirB?SirC?Sir?SirASirBSirCSbnASbnBSbnCSbnDSbnESbnFSbnGSbnHSbnI
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This SS encodes a genetic locus (sbn) involved in biosynthesis of the siderophore staphylobactin in S. aureus. Although this compound has not been structurally characterized yet, it’s involvement in virulence of S. aureus in a murine kidney abscess model has been clearly demonstrated (Dale et al., 2004). It was also shown, that the sbnABCDEFGHI genes comprise an operon, and that iron (via Fur) regulates its transcription (Dale et al., 2004). The functions of each gene product have not been determined yet. The involvement of the SirABC proteins in the staphylobactin import in S. aureus was shown experimentally (Dale, Sebulsky, and Heinrichs, 2004)

It was later suggested by (Challis GL. 2005), based on sequence similarity of the SbnE, SbnC, and SbnF genes with iucA, iucB, iucC respectively (controlling aerobactin biosynthesis in some virulent E. coli strain), that staphylobactin is related to a group of non-peptide siderophores, produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS)-independent mechanism. Siderophores in this group include aerobactin, rhizobactin 1021, achromobactin, vibrioferrin, alcaligin, and desferrioxamine E (reviewed by Challis, 2005). Such siderophores are assembled from alternating dicarboxylic acid and diamine or amino alcohol building blocks (which are nevertheless derived from amino acids) linked by amide or ester bonds (Challis GL. 2005)
References

1. S.E. Dale, A. Doherty-Kirby, G. Lajoie, and D.E. Heinrichs. 2004. Role of Siderophore Biosynthesis in Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus: Identification and Characterization of Genes Involved in Production of a Siderophore. Infection and Immunity 72: 29–37.

2. S.E. Dale, M.T. Sebulsky, and D.E. Heinrichs. 2004. Involvement of SirABC in Iron-Siderophore Import in Staphylococcus aureus J. Bact., 186(24):8356–8362

3. J. Heinrichs, L.E. Gatlin, C. Kunsch, G.H. Choi, and M.S. Hanson. 1999 Identification and characterization of SirA, an iron-regulated protein from Staphylococcus aureus J. Bact. 1436–1443

4. Challis GL. 2005. A widely distributed bacterial pathway for siderophore biosynthesis independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Chembiochem, 6(4):601-11