Subsystem: Polyprenyl Diphosphate Biosynthesis
This subsystem's description is:
Isoprenoids are natural compounds synthesized from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), which is a five-carbon compound, via allylic diphosphates with various carbon numbers (5 x n). Organisms have an appropriate set of prenyl diphosphate synthases that catalyze the condensation of IPP with allylic diphosphates to produce other allylic diphosphates with higher carbon numbers.
In this pathway multiple units of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) undergo a series of polymerizations to form a polyisoprenoid chain.
Additional isoprenoid units are added to a maximal length that is determined by the specific enzyme. Most organisms generate polyprenyl chains of predominantly one length. Once completed, the polyprenyl chain is incorporated into other molecules, such as quinones. The enzyme that attaches the polyprenyl chain to the quinone precursor molecule does not have a preference towards a particular length. Thus, the length of the polyprenyl chain in the mature quinone molecule is determined by the predominant polyprenyl diphosphate synthase enzyme of the organism.
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