Subsystem: Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps

This subsystem's description is:

Bacteria can resist to antibiotics by active exportation mediated by membrane transporters called efflux pumps. These proteins can be specific of a class of antibiotics or responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR). Energy required by efflux pumps can be provided by transmembrane electrochemical gradient of protons (MFS, RND, SMR families) or sodium ions (MATE family) or by ATP hydrolysis (ABC family).
In Gram-negative bacteria, efflux transporters usually are organized as multicomponent systems in which the efflux pump located in the inner membrane works in conjunction with a periplasmic fusion protein and an outer membrane factor. The most frequently encountered pumps are of the RND-type such as AcrB in Escherichia coli or MexB in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In Gram-positive bacteria, efflux is solely mediated by the pump protein, so described with MFS pumps such as NorA or QacA in Staphylococcus aureus and PmrA in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Efflux transporters have also been described in mycobacteria.
It is now understood that these efflux pumps also have a physiological role. They can confer resistance to natural substances produced by the host, including bile, hormones and host-defence molecules. In addition, some efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation division (RND) family have been shown to have a role in the colonization and the persistence of bacteria in the host. So, they have roles in bacterial pathogenicity.

===========VARIANTS:==================

1.1 – organism possesses functional RND family MDR Pump;
1.2 – organism possesses functional MATE family MDR efflux pump;
1.12 - functional RND family MDR Pump + MATE MDR efflux pump;
1.3 –functional ABC superfamily efflux transport system;
1.4 – Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) multidrug-efflux transporter
1.1234 - all listed above

For more information, please check out the description and the additional notes tabs, below

Literature ReferencesMultidrug-resistance efflux pumps - not just for resistance. Piddock LJ Nature reviews. Microbiology 2006 Aug16845433
Clinically relevant chromosomally encoded multidrug resistance efflux pumps in bacteria. Piddock LJ Clinical microbiology reviews 2006 Apr16614254
Phylogeny of multidrug transporters. Saier MH Jr Seminars in cell & developmental biology 2001 Jun11428913
DiagramFunctional RolesSubsystem SpreadsheetDescriptionAdditional Notes 

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Group Alias
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