Subsystem: Lactose and Galactose Uptake and Utilization

This subsystem's description is:

Staphylococcus aureus cannot hydrolyse lactose directly. Instead, it has an enzyme, phospho-beta-galactosidase, that hydrolytically cleaves the phosphorylated derivative of lactose into glucose and galactose-6-phosphate. Staphylococcus aureus transports lactose and galactose across the membrane and into the cell by a phosphoenolpyruvate dependent phosphotransferase system, during which, lactose and galactose are phosphorylated respectively to lactose-6-phosphate, and galactose-6-phosphate.

Staphylococcus aureus degrades D-galactose-6-phosphate via the D-tagatose-6-phosphate pathway, a series of three reactions, analogous to the first three reactions of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway for D-glucose-6-phosphate metabolism. The enzymes catalyzing the reactions in the D-tagatose-6-phosphate pathway:
D-galactose-6-phosphate isomerase,
D-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase,
and D-tagatose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase
were partially purified and characterized.


=========Variant codes:=============

1.0 - Lactose and galactose uptake by lactose permease and degradation (lac operon + gal);

2.0 - uptake and degradation of lactose by Staphylococcus way (cleaves the phosphorylated derivative of lactose into glucose and galactose-6-phosphate);

3.0 - lactose and galactose uptake and degradation in both ways (Streptococcus pneumoniae);

4.0 - Galactose uptake and degradation only

W - Lactose and galactose uptake by lactose permease and degradation (lac operon + gal) (with some to many genes missing);

X - LacC, *LacZ, GalE only;

Y - 1 or 2 genes missing for lactose and galactose utilization;

Z - Tagatose utilization pathway only.

For more information, please check out the description and the additional notes tabs, below

Literature ReferencesPossible effects of hydrogen ions in ischemic myocardium. Tsien RW Circulation 1976 Mar1253346
The Leloir pathway: a mechanistic imperative for three enzymes to change the stereochemical configuration of a single carbon in galactose. Frey PA FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1996 Mar8647345
Global analysis of carbohydrate utilization by Lactobacillus acidophilus using cDNA microarrays. Barrangou R Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006 Mar 716505367
DiagramFunctional RolesSubsystem SpreadsheetDescriptionAdditional NotesScenarios 

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Group Alias
Abbrev.Functional RoleReactionsScenario ReactionsGOLiterature
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