Subsystem: Glycine Biosynthesis

This subsystem's description is:

Glycine can be used in serine biosynthesis via glycine hydroxymethyltransferase. In addition to its use in protein biosynthesis, glycine is used in the biosynthesis of other compounds such as tetrapyrroles and purines, (see pathways of purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis and purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis ). Along with serine, glycine is an important donor of one-carbon units via the tetrahydrofolate pathways.
Glycine can be biosynthesized from serine by the reverse of the glycine hydroxymethyltransferase reaction. Glycine can also be produced by glyoxylate aminotransferase acting on glyoxylate and alanine (glyoxylate + L-alanine = glycine + pyruvate ), glyoxylate and glutamate, or glyoxylate and serine (serine pathway).
In bacteria and fungi, glycine can be biosynthesized from threonine by threonine aldolase (threonine degradation pathway).
In eukaryotes glycine can be biosynthesized by the reverse reactions of the mitochondrial glycine cleavage complex (see Subsystem: Glycine cleavage system). Glycine biosynthesis by reversal of the glycine cleavage complex reactions has been demonstrated in vivo in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in vitro in Gallus gallus and Rattus norvegicus.

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