Subsystem: Evolution of Proline Biosynthesis (for review by Fichman et al)

This subsystem's description is:

Proline is not only an essential component of proteins but it also has important roles in adaptation to osmotic and dehydration stresses, redox control, and apoptosis. Here we review pathways of proline biosynthesis in the three biological domains. Pathway reconstruction from genome data for hundreds of eubacterial and dozens of archaeal and eukaryotic organisms in this Subsystem revealed evolutionary conservation and variations of this pathway across different taxa. In the most prevalent pathway of proline synthesis, glutamate is phosphorylated to gamma-glutamyl phosphate by gamma-glutamyl kinase, reduced to gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde by gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase, cyclizes spontaneously to delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate and reduced to proline by delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. In higher plants and animals the first two steps are catalyzed by a bi-functional delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. Alternate pathways of proline formation use the initial steps of the arginine biosynthetic pathway to ornithine, which can be converted to delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate by ornithine aminotransferease and then reduced to proline or directly to proline by ornithine cyclodeaminase; in some organisms, the latter pathways contribute to or could be fully responsible for the synthesis of proline

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Literature ReferencesEvolution of proline biosynthesis: enzymology, bioinformatics, genetics, and transcriptional regulation. Fichman Y Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 2015 Nov25367752
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