Subsystem: Cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance

This subsystem's description is:

Resistance of many bacteria to transition metal cations is predominantly based on metal resistance determinants that contain genes for RND (resistance, nodulation, and cell division protein family) proteins. These are part of transenvelope protein complexes, which seem to detoxify the periplasm by export of toxic metal cations from the periplasm to the outside.RND proteins belonging to a protein family of heavy metal exporters. Together with many efflux systems that detoxify the cytoplasm, regulators and possible metal-binding proteins, RND proteins mediate an efficient defense against transition metal cations.The czc cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance determinant is often located on a plasmid. The czc, chr, ncc and mer genes that are responsible for resistance to Zn, Cr, Ni and Hg, respectively. Systems for heavy metal efflux are homologous and arose by duplication of a czcICAB core determinant. the exact function of efflux complex can be sometimes predicted from the context of genes localized in proximity to a operon for a metal efflux complex.

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