This subsystem's description is:
This is a cluster-based subsystem. It includes the maf gene,mreCD, cafA/ribonuclease G, tldD,
an amidohydrolase and an exported protein.
J Bacteriol. 1993 May;175(10):3139-45.
Amplification of the Bacillus subtilis maf gene results in arrested septum formation.
Butler YX, Abhayawardhane Y, Stewart GC.
Department of Microbiology, Univeristy of Kansas, Lawrence 66045.
The Bacillus subtilis homolog of the Escherichia coli morphogene orfE (of the mre operon) has been identified. The determinant is located on the chromosome immediately upstream of the mreBCD-minCD (divIVB) operon. The Maf protein shares substantial amino acid sequence identity with the E. coli OrfE protein. Introduction of the B. subtilis maf determinant on a multicopy plasmid into B. subtilis cells results in an inhibition of septation, which leads to extensive filamentation and loss of viability in the transformed cell population. Insertional inactivation of maf indicated that this gene is not essential for cell division.
NOTE: Rnase G cafA clustering with flagellar class 3 genes.
Identification of new flagellar genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
Frye J, Karlinsey JE, Felise HR, Marzolf B, Dowidar N, McClelland M, Hughes KT.
Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, San Diego, California 92121, USA.
RNA levels of flagellar genes in eight different genetic backgrounds were compared to that of the wild type by DNA microarray analysis. Cluster analysis identified new, potential flagellar genes, three putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, STM3138 (McpA), STM3152 (McpB), and STM3216(McpC), and a CheV homolog, STM2314, in Salmonella, that are not found in Escherichia coli. Isolation and characterization of Mud-lac insertions in cheV, mcpB, mcpC, and the previously uncharacterized aer locus of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium revealed them to be controlled by sigma28-dependent flagellar class 3 promoters. In addition, the srfABC operon previously isolated as an SsrB-regulated operon clustered with the flagellar class 2 operon and was determined to be under FlhDC control. The previously unclassified fliB gene, encoding flagellin methylase, clustered as a class 2 gene, which was verified using reporter fusions, and the fliB transcriptional start site was identified by primer extension analysis. RNA levels of all flagellar genes were elevated in flgM or fliT null strains. RNA levels of class 3 flagellar genes were elevated in a fliS null strain, while deletion of the fliY, fliZ, or flk gene did not affect flagellar RNA levels relative to those of the wild type. The cafA (RNase G) and yhjH genes clustered with flagellar class 3 transcribed genes. Null alleles in cheV, mcpA, mcpB, mcpC, and srfB did not affect motility, while deletion of yhjH did result in reduced motility compared to that of the wild type.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jun 7;259(2):483-8.
Escherichia coli cafA gene encodes a novel RNase, designated as RNase G, involved in processing of the 5' end of 16S rRNA.
Wachi M, Umitsuki G, Shimizu M, Takada A, Nagai K.
Department of Bioengineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8501, Japan. email@example.com
We found that the Escherichia coli cafA::cat mutant accumulated a precursor of 16S rRNA. This precursor migrated to the same position with 16.3S precursor found in the BUMMER strain that is known to be deficient in the 5' end processing of 16S rRNA. Accumulation of 16. 3S rRNA in the BUMMER mutant was complemented by introduction of a plasmid carrying the cafA gene. The mutant type cafA gene cloned from the BUMMER strain had a 11-bp deletion in its coding region. A small amount of the mature 16S rRNA was still formed in the cafA::cat mutant. This residual activity was found to be due to RNase E encoded by the rne/ams gene by rifampicin-chase experiments of the cafA::cat ams1 double mutant. These results indicated that the cafA gene encodes a novel RNase responsible for processing of the 5' end of 16S rRNA. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
J Bacteriol. 2006 Nov;188(21):7668-76. Epub 2006 Aug 25.
Knockout and overexpression of pyrroloquinoline quinone biosynthetic genes in Gluconobacter oxydans 621H.
Hölscher T, Görisch H.
FG Technische Biochemie, Sekr. GG1, TU Berlin, Seestr. 13, D-13353 Berlin, Germany. Tina.Hoelscher@TU-berlin.de
In Gluconobacter oxydans, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) serves as the cofactor for various membrane-bound dehydrogenases that oxidize sugars and alcohols in the periplasm. Proteins for the biosynthesis of PQQ are encoded by the pqqABCDE gene cluster. Our reverse transcription-PCR and promoter analysis data indicated that the pqqA promoter represents the only promoter within the pqqABCDE cluster of G. oxydans 621H. PQQ overproduction in G. oxydans was achieved by transformation with the plasmid-carried pqqA gene or the complete pqqABCDE cluster. A G. oxydans mutant unable to produce PQQ was obtained by site-directed disruption of the pqqA gene. In contrast to the wild-type strain, the pqqA mutant did not grow with d-mannitol, d-glucose, or glycerol as the sole energy source, showing that in G. oxydans 621H, PQQ is essential for growth with these substrates. Growth of the pqqA mutant, however, was found with d-gluconate as the energy source. The growth behavior of the pqqA mutant correlated with the presence or absence of the respective PQQ-dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenase activities, demonstrating the vital role of these enzymes in G. oxydans metabolism. A different PQQ-deficient mutant was generated by Tn5 transposon mutagenesis. This mutant showed a defect in a gene with high homology to the Escherichia coli tldD gene, which encodes a peptidase. Our results indicate that the tldD gene in G. oxydans 621H is involved in PQQ biosynthesis, possibly with a similar function to that of the pqqF genes found in other PQQ-synthesizing bacteria.
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|Literature References||Amplification of the Bacillus subtilis maf gene results in arrested septum formation. Butler YX Journal of bacteriology 1993 May||8387996||Escherichia coli cafA gene encodes a novel RNase, designated as RNase G, involved in processing of the 5' end of 16S rRNA. Wachi M Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999 Jun 7||10362534||Knockout and overexpression of pyrroloquinoline quinone biosynthetic genes in Gluconobacter oxydans 621H. HÃ¶lscher T Journal of bacteriology 2006 Nov||16936032||Identification of new flagellar genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Frye J Journal of bacteriology 2006 Mar||16513753|
|Diagram||Functional Roles||Subsystem Spreadsheet||Description|
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