Subsystem: Biofilm Adhesin Biosynthesis

This subsystem's description is:

The genes required for synthesis and transport of the biofilm adhesin poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (β-1,6-GlcNAc; PGA)

For more information, please check out the description and the additional notes tabs, below

Literature ReferencesThe cation-responsive protein NhaR of Escherichia coli activates pgaABCD transcription, required for production of the biofilm adhesin poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Goller C Journal of bacteriology 2006 Dec16997959
Biofilm formation and dispersal under the influence of the global regulator CsrA of Escherichia coli. Jackson DW Journal of bacteriology 2002 Jan11741870
The pgaABCD locus of Escherichia coli promotes the synthesis of a polysaccharide adhesin required for biofilm formation. Wang X Journal of bacteriology 2004 May15090514
Roles of pgaABCD genes in synthesis, modification, and export of the Escherichia coli biofilm adhesin poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Itoh Y Journal of bacteriology 2008 May18359807
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Abbrev.Functional RoleReactionsScenario ReactionsGOLiterature

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The genes required for synthesis and transport of the biofilm adhesin poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (β-1,6-GlcNAc; PGA)
PGA is an adhesin for the maintenance of biofilm structural stability. Besides mediating cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface adhesion in biofilms, PGA is essential for the formation of the cellular architecture of the biofilm microstructure and for conversion from temporary polar cell surface attachment to permanent lateral attachment during the initial stages of biofilm development. PGA has profound effects on host-microbe interactions, affecting colonization, virulence, and immune evasion.
Synthesis of PGA requires the pgaABCD operon. Pga gene products are involved in the synthesis, covalent modification, and export of the biofilm adhesin. The cytoplasmic membrane proteins (PgaC and PgaD) are necessary for PGA synthesis and the outer membrane proteins (PgaA and PgaB) are needed for PGA export.
The carbon storage regulator CsrA posttranscriptionally represses PGA production by binding to six sites within the untranslated leader and proximal coding region of pgaA mRNA. The LysR family DNA-binding protein NhaR activates pgaABCD transcription in response to high pH and high concentrations of sodium.