Subsystem: Arginine and Ornithine Degradation

This subsystem's description is:

There are various routes employed by bacteria to utilize arginine. While the first arginine catabolic operon was reported in 1990 on the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway, the past decade has proven to be enormously productive regarding molecular characterization of various arginine catabolic operons and regulation in bacteria.

In this Subsystem we summarize four major arginine catabolic pathways:

1) arginase pathway,
2) arginine succinyltransferase (AST) pathway (the major route of arginine utilization as the carbon and nitrogen source under aerobic conditions),
3) arginine decarboxylase/agmatinase/agmatine deiminase pathway (serves to supply putrescine when arginine is abundant),
4) arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway ( there is separate Subsystem in the SEED for ADI: Arginine Deiminase Pathway, Author: master:OlgaZ) (provides ATP to support slow growth under anaerobic conditions).

=======Variant codes: ===============

1.1 - Arginine succinyltransferase (AST) pathway (astCADBE operon);
1.2 Arginase pathway (rocRDEF or rocRDGA operons)
1.3 Arginine decarboxylase/agmatinase/agmatine deiminase pathway (SpeA or AdiA +SpeB or AguAB);
1.4 - Arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway;

1.1234 - All routes above are present and complete;
1.12x34 - All routes above are present and complete except arginase pathway (code1.2), where some genes are missing.

x after the number stands for incomplete pathway

For more information, please check out the description and the additional notes tabs, below

Literature ReferencesArgR-dependent repression of arginine and histidine transport genes in Escherichia coli K-12. Caldara M Journal of molecular biology 2007 Oct 1917850814
Functional genomics enables identification of genes of the arginine transaminase pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Yang Z Journal of bacteriology 2007 Jun17416670
Pathways and regulation of bacterial arginine metabolism and perspectives for obtaining arginine overproducing strains. Lu CD Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2006 Apr16432742
Cloning and characterization of the aru genes encoding enzymes of the catabolic arginine succinyltransferase pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Itoh Y Journal of bacteriology 1997 Dec9393691
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